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Detailed Information on Kidney Stones (calculi)

Kidney stones, also called renal calculi. Kidney stones, one of the most painful of the urologic disorders, have beset humans for centuries. A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the urine. Kidney stones in a 7,000-year-old Egyptian mummy. Unfortunately, kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. Each year, people make almost 3 million visits to health care providers and more than half a million people go to emergency rooms for kidney stone problems. Kidney stones can be due to underlying metabolic conditions, such as renal tubular acidosis, Dent's disease and medullary sponge kidney. Many health facilities will screen for such disorders in patients with recurrent kidney stones.


Kidney stones are common. A person who has had kidney stones often gets them again in the future. Kidney stones often occur in premature infants. Kidney stones are composed of struvite (magnesium, ammonium and phosphate); uric acid; calcium phosphate; and cystine. Kidney stones may contain various combinations of chemicals. The most common type of stone contains calcium in combination with either oxalate or phosphate. Approximately 85% of stones are composed predominantly of calcium compounds. The most common cause of calcium stone production is excess calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria). Excess calcium is normally removed from the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Low levels of citrate, high levels of oxalate and uric acid.

Calcium stones are composed of calcium that is chemically bound to oxalate (calcium oxalate) or phosphate (calcium phosphate). About 90% of stones 4 mm or less in size usually will pass freely. A person with a family history of kidney stones may be more likely to develop stones. Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders such as cystic kidney diseases, and certain metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism are also linked to stone formation. Kidney Stones Treatment varies, depending on the type of stone and the cause. Surgical techniques have also been developed to remove kidney stones. Drink at least 6 - 8 glasses of water per day to produce a large amount of urine. Some people might need to get fluids through a vein (intravenous). Pain relievers can help control the pain of passing the stones (renal colic ).


Kidney Stones Treatment and Prevention Tips

1. Drinking enough water to make 2 to 2.5 liters of urine per day.

2. A diet low in protein, nitrogen and sodium intake.

3. Avoiding excess Vitamin C, especially Vitamin C supplements.
4. Taking drugs such as thiazides, potassium citrate, magnesium citrate and allopurinol

5. Pain relievers can help control the pain of passing the stones (renal colic).

6. Allopurinol is another drug with proven benefits in some calcium kidney stone formers.

(ArticlesBase SC #311167) 


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